My PS3 Blue-Ray Drive cannot read any disks anymore
Is there a possibility to replace the drive with a normal standard spare parts?
I believe if you crack open the box you void any warranty or agreement with Sony, so I would advise against it if at all possible.
Having said that I have taken a PS3 apart and fiddled around with the inner workings a few times for various side projects and while its not particularly easy you can replace the blu-ray drive in a PS3 by yourself. Assuming you have a secondary drive from Sony that is compatible with the PS3.
But if you are going through all the trouble of taking it apart just to replace a stock piece I would first suggest contacting Sony and seeing if they can replace the entire PS3 and save yourself the time, and you may end up with a completely new console.