Assuming you have any necessary adapter cables, there are three things to consider when charging stuff (see also this electronics.se question):
Voltage. To charge a device, the output voltage of the charger and input voltage of the device basically need to match. These voltages are printed on the device; the 3DS input voltage is 4.6V, my iPad charger outputs 5.1V, and standard USB output is 5V. A small amount of variance is sometimes acceptable, but exactly how much depends on the device. 4.6V and 5.1V is close enough it could or could not work, depending on the tolerances of components used in the 3DS (which could vary invisibly between 3DSs). Supplying too much or not enough voltage can break electronics but many devices can detect this and just refuse to charge.
Amperage. The output amperage of the charger is ideally at least as large as the input amperage of the device. Again, you can find this printed on the device. If it's larger, that's fine. If it's smaller, the device will charge but slowly. If it's much smaller, the device may simply decide not to charge at all. Apple chargers output anywhere between 1A and 12A; the 3DS requires 0.9A.
Manufacturer reliability. Apple and Nintendo are stable companies with smart engineering teams, and make certified, reliable, safe chargers. Is e.g. HDE, the makers of the cable you link, also? I don't know. Poorly-made power transmission devices are a safety risk; they can shock you severely or get hot enough to melt or start fires. Cheap cables can also get stuck in devices simply because of a poorly-moulded shape, and cause damage when you try to remove them.
For the specific case you're talking about, the amperage is fine. The voltage is close enough I wouldn't be surprised if it worked, but also far enough I wouldn't test it with my only 3DS unless I had some kind of guarantee. The most worrying part for me is the unknown (to me at least) cable brand. The Amazon reviews on it and other products from HDE are mixed at best.