In Dwarf Fortress 0.31.37 adventure mode characters now choose abilities. Are these permanent or can they be raised?
Like all other attributes in dwarf fortress 2010, they can be raised (from the individual's starting baseline) by increasing in skills.
Personally, on one of my retired adventurers, I noticed that my Kinesthetic Sense had become "above average". As I did not put any of my starting points into Kinesthetic Sense, this confirms the above trend.
Unfortunately, while the Wiki is well documented on the "Soul Attributes", it is patently less obvious which skills raise the physical skills.