I've found myself lost several times on a planet and I see no kind of map in the game. Is there any way at all to see a map of the current planet?
Maps are not currently in the game. Whether or not there will be one in the future is entirely unknown, and not covered by the scope of Stack Exchange questions, but as for whether or not they exist currently, they do not.
If you want to find out about planned updates, I'd suggest going to the Chucklefish Forums, where discussion about Starbound is very active and future updates are being discussed right now.