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Are there rules governing the profession of spawning villagers?

In my world, a village spawned on top of a lake. This was really interesting, but the villagers would exit their buildings and immediately fall into the water. I connected the houses with floating sidewalks so they could traverse the buildings, but apparently they liked jumping off the walkways. Eventually they drowned themselves to extinction.

So I revamped the village with fences and walls to prevent suicides and invading hostiles, and began a long re-population effort through curing zombie villagers. After augmenting the village with additional buildings, they finally bred, and I was able to get to a large enough population that an iron golem appeared.

Strangely, however, none of these villagers are farmers! I had a few farmers in the early days, but those guys must have died somehow. Now I probably have a population of thirty or so, but not a single one working the land. The two naturally-generated farm plots are still present. I even built animal pens on the outskirts.

I'd like farmers, because they give me the easiest means to earn emeralds. All these librarians, priests, mages, and blacksmiths don't have the best trade offers.

Is there anything that controls whether farmers will be generated? If so, how can I get this to occur?

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Farmers should spawn randomly, as well as all other professions. Wiki even mentions Villagers being able to switch professions since 12w22, but I've never observed it myself. My only advice is to kill off some of the unwanted guys and hope that farmers spawn. Just be sure not to get your hands dirty, or they will dislike you :-) – Orc JMR Jan 12 '14 at 5:11
There's about a 1 / 1000 chance of getting 30 villagers without a farmer, (assuming they're all equally likely) so it's "possible" you have hit a bad random number generator run. – John Jan 14 '14 at 19:30
That's very slim odds. I'm wondering if my farmers changed professions (I wasn't aware they could do that before). I had done a bunch of farmer-specific trading, and then there were no farmers. Maybe they can switch if they run out of trades? – Jacob Jan 14 '14 at 19:50
@jacob farmers won't do anything to the farming plots ever. The only difference between different villagers is the kind of trades they have, they do nothing at all. ANd if a villager annoys you with bad trade offers? DOn't you have lava/or a sword or some other dealy thing(the lava won't anger the golem)? – Arperum Jun 26 '14 at 13:59
I'm intrigued by how would a floating village look like, can you post a screenshot ? – BiAiB Mar 4 '15 at 13:20

They don't always spawn there's a certain percent chance that a villager will spawn as a farmer. Anyways it sounds like a repeat.

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you need to make walkways (like dirt) to every door of every house the villagers will walk on them to get to other houses, worked for my lake village. :-D

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Might there be a bug like "farmer index is 0 and villagers spawn on a random number from 1 upwards?" I have also a Village with 3 Iron golems and not a single farmer. All other professions are there several times!

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