Keep in mind that most of what you see in the result screen is simply a summary of things that happen throughout the level (the action can get a little hectic though, so it's easy to miss the various prompts).
The section immediately under "RESULTS", where you have a bunch of crosses, is a summary of all the enemies you defeated. Crossed bones mean a dead beast/animal. There are other icons for defeating mechanical enemies (cogs, if I remember correctly) and subduing/killing a human enemy (a star and skull, respectively). The icons are actually identical to the kill prompts you get while playing:
The fame you earned is just that, how much fame you earned during the level. Fame can be earned by doing "impressive things" while playing the level, and I'm pretty sure getting fame is easier if you have a crowd watching you, like you do on some of the levels. When you do something impressive while playing, you should notice yellow/red smiley faces appear near your ship. The more/bigger the they are, the more impressive you were. Smashing hard into an enemy and shattering his armor is an example of something impressive you can do, and this will net you some yellow smileys. Red smileys represent you getting a bad reputation, such as when you kill an enemy who yielded.
Here's a shot of some serious glory gained for defeating an enemy:
And of a little less glory for simply hitting something hard (as indicated by the "Strong hit" icon just above it):
Next up, your "points scored" followed by a series of coins and tokens. This is simply a representation of the money you earned during the level (enemies hit usually drop coins. See the massive coin spill in the first of the glory screenshots, just under the smiley face. You have to run into them to pick them up, though).
The overall rating simply shows how well you did on the level, though unfortunately I have no idea what the thresholds for the ranks on any of the levels are. I can't even tell you how many ranks there are, or which token is better than the other.
Glory, I believe, can be considered the final score for the level (and eventually, the game). As far as I remember it adds up as you play.