Thankfully, Skyrim does not suffer like Oblivion from all those unintuitive effects.
The one exception is magic ABSORB (not resist). It is available from the Breton's activated racial ability, the Atronach standing stone, and an Alteration perk. Even then, it only causes your conjurations to fail, and does not affect your healing magic, potions, etc. My Breton character simply doesn't conjure anything and enjoys full effect from everything while laughing off mage NPCs. If you want to conjure things and resist magic, simply avoid magic absorb and steer yourself towards hitting the 80% RESIST magic cap.