According to this post, your race and gender create a ratio that affects melee damage, run speed, and jump height.
Aside from listed racial abilities and starting skills, is anything else in the game affected by your race/gender combo?
For reference, the linked chart:
Argonian Male: 1.01 Argonian Female: 1.00 Breton Male: 1.00 Breton Female: 0.95 Dark Elf Male: 1.00 Dark Elf Female: 1.00 High Elf Male: 1.08 High Elf Female: 1.08 Imperial Male: 1.00 Imperial Female: 1.00 Khajiit Male: 1.00 Khajiit Female: 0.95 Nord Male: 1.03 Nord Female: 1.03 Orc Male: 1.04 Orc Female: 1.04 Redguard Male: 1.00 Redguard Female: 1.00 Wood Elf Male: 0.98 Wood Elf Female: 1.00
Edit: It seems race/gender also affect a character's weight, but it's unknown what effect weight has on the game.