So, I took part in a drinking contest with a stranger in an inn, and instead of waking up in a wrecked temple, he just took his barstool again, and only responded with "huh?", "Hmm?", etc. when I spoke to him.
I looked up the details of the quest line, and with further investigation, it appears that Ysolda has somehow died. I used the console and did a
player.moveto [RefId] and found her corpse in that odd green-and-purple-bricked dead zone.
Since I missed the window directly after her death to use
resurrect 1 to keep her alive in the minds of the town, can I use any console-fu to repair the quest line?