Rather than disenchanting weapons in non-modded Skyrim, is there a way to learn the spells spell tomes in a way to use them to enchant items? Ex: Using the Sparks Spell Tome to get the enchantment for 10 points of damage to magicka and health.
Without mods, there is no way to learn enchantments without disenchanting an item (source); if you're looking for a specific enchantment, you can always use the following trick to re-generate a particular shopkeeper's inventory:
And the inventory will be refreshed. This quickly becomes tedious if you're looking for something like Banish, however.