Given that I don't have magic resistance yet, and walking on to the chest always teleports me away, is there a way to do it?
A general point is to move the item off of the trap, typically by kicking. A chest, however, has a special kick interaction, so even with kicking boots, you can't move the chest off of the trap. If you have a wand of teleportation or know the spell teleport away, you can teleport the chest off of the trap, and then hunt down where it lands. As long as it doesn't end up on another teleportation trap, you're home free!
Absent of having a means of teleportation, however, the only other way to get it is indeed to have Magic Resistance such as from a cloak of magic resistance. Teleport control will not let you land on a teleport trap, whether you teleport from elsewhere or from the trap itself.