I understand that capturing and holding the points give your Commander more resources, but how much is each node worth? Should I worry about controlling the Tertiary nodes if I can find them or just run towards the massive fight at the Primary? At what point should I surrender the Primary to protect my other nodes?
I don't have the exact values memorized, but the ratios are around
As a rule of thumb, if you can't get Primary, you need to have both secondaries and be at least even on tertiaries to stay competitive. Any less and your team is at a disadvantage.
In the beginning it's best for the team to move to primary while 1-2 stealth go for one secondary and the tertiaries on your side. The others shouldn't bother capping anything on the way to prime since one tick of prime is about the same as capping all the other stuff between your base and prime.
Since in most cases you won't be able to control both secondaries due to distance to the respective bases, primary always has absolute priority. If the opponent has it for an extended period of time, you lose.