In what was undoubtedly an act of poor judgement, I recently elected reinstalled Sim City 4. Now that my addiction is in full force, I'm wondering if there's an optimal placement for water pumps in my city. Will they lower property value if I place them near residential areas? Will water pollution be worse if I place them in industrial zones or will water pollution always be a problem near industrial areas, just like air pollution? Just where should I be placing those blasted pumps?
As I remember it, water pump placement does affect certain aspects including but possibly not limited to:
Generally following these guidelines they are best placed somewhere near a natural water source some distance from the main body of your city. This is less of an issue than water towers because the distance the pumps effect is mitigated by piping. (Just remember to provide them with power.)
As stated in my comment, take this answer with a grain of salt. I've written it entirely based off my memory and cannot prove or source any of the information.
You can place pump anywhere where there's no water pollution. That's pretty much the only thing that matters with regards to placement of water pumps and towers.
Avoid placing pumps and water tower near areas of heavy water pollution, such as farms, heavy industry, polluting power stations, and landfills. Use the water pollution Data View to find areas without water pollution. Pumps placed in polluted areas will suffer from lower output and may shut down entirely. However, do remember that pumps require power to operate.
As an aside, only commercial and residential zones suffer from a lack of water supply. Connecting industrial zones and power plants with water pipes only reduce their likelihood of catching fire, and is usually not considered 'worth' the additional water usage to connect.