Looking at your error dump file, there are several things that catch my eye.
Line 298 shows you're running
Minecraft.exe instead of the JAR file. While normally this isn't an issue, I've seen weird stuff with the EXE as opposed to the jar. Try running with just the minecraft JAR instead to see if it works. You could also try force updating (in the launcher, click "Options" and then check "Force Update"; login) to see if that helps anything.
On line 75 it specifies that there is an error with a GL (lwjgl) call to
glCallList) which suggests a drivers issue. Keep in mind lwjgl uses native libraries to do what it does (more or less parts of the program that aren't completely Java and depend almost entirely on the specific operating system you're running) so it's not necessarily Java's fault.
As others have suggested, make sure your drivers are up to date (
GL11 in LWJGL means OpenGL 1.1 - if your graphics card doesn't support it, you're going to definitely need a new graphics card...). You're running on Windows 7x64 with an ATI card so updating, if necessary, shouldn't be a problem.
Furthermore, I saw line 138, which shows you have at least one mod installed; try disabling/removing mods completely, as they are notorious for screwing things up.
Make sure your MSVC runtimes are updated (at the very least make sure 08/10/12's x86 versions are up to date - yes, you're on 64-bit but the JNL libraries Minecraft uses are 32-bit).
And, as always, make sure your Java is up to date (your dump log suggests you're just a little bit behind - about 5-6 builds).
If none of that fixes the issue, then it could very well be a RAMDisk issue as many have suggested in the original post's comments.