I think you have listed off all the chests quite nicely, I don't recall seeing anything other than those. While it's important to realize the random nature of the game and it's drops, here are some general observations I have made in my playthroughs. Keep in mind, your experience may vary:
Resplendent and Exquisite chests have dropped by far the most
gold/gems/rare loot in my playthroughs. On nightmare, it is not
uncommon for me to find a rare and two magic items along with a great
gold haul plus a gem or two. Of all the chests, these are the only ones that I have seen a consistent increase in the quality and quantity of drops to conclusively distinguish them from any other chest. Couple that with the special sound effects they make when opened, and one can discern they have elevated loot.
Treasure Chests seem to have dropped more gold than the basic chests
and bloody chests, although I have not noticed any rare items from
them. I have found gems before.
Normal Chests tend to drop a couple white items, a magic item, some
gold, and rarely a gem.
Bloody Chests seem to be the least profitable. I usually only see
white items and a small amount of gold. As pointed out by Heishe below in the comments, chances are my luck has just been poor, and they are supposed to act like the normal/treasure chests above.
Important to remember though, if you can interact with it, CLICK IT. You never know what will come out. On multiple occasions I have received a rare from an innocuous environmental object or a large sum of gold from a dead soldier. If you value loot, it pays to be a completionist. Explore every nook and cranny of each map and kill or demo everything. It will keep you ahead of the leveling curve, and ensure you maximize earning potential in each area.