There is another question where I gave this same answer, but I will repeat it here as this is a separate question.
The two ways I can think of to deal with lava quickly, the first one being to fill in the lava with a material like gravel or sand (it will fall and fill up the pool). You can then dig out what you want to again or just continue on your merry. Downside is that this can require you to carry a bit of material with you.
Second option is the one I prefer and just requires a bucket. You can pick up and place the lava down in one single block location. If that location is out of the way then you have nothing else to do with it, just clear your way out two clicks at a time (pick up and drop back off). If you want to get rid of the lava then its just filling in that one block with stone dirt sand or whatever.
Note: Do Not forget to carry around a bucket of water as well though.. There is always that moment when you touch the lava you were sure you were safe enough from!