Ultima Arrow and Meteor Javelin don't require six ATB segments: they are what's known as full ATB skills, and require the entire ATB gauge, whatever the gauge's length is. For example, you can see Noel use Meteor Javelin with only 5 ATB segments in this video:
But, to answer your question, Serah and Noel both have weapons you can create post-game—Sagittarius and Mac an Luin, respectively—that will increase the ATB gauge by one. To craft them, you need:
- 2 × Trapezohedron
- 1 × Phoenix Blood
- 1 × Izanami (for Sagittarius) or 1 × Vajradanda (for Mac an Luin)
The trapezohedrons drop from the Long Gui in Archlyte Steppes -??? AF- when it's sunny, phoenix blood comes from Pantopoda in the later gates (like Academia -500 AF-, this video shows what they look like), and the base weapons are sold by Chocolina in Academia -500 AF-.
Once you have the required materials, Chocolina will craft them for you in Archlyte Steppes -??? AF-.