When I select a workshop with q, I can see all options available for that workshop. If I select an option for which I don't meet the requirements, a screen pops up telling me the required input and the output for that option. Is there a way to see this screen for an option I do meet the requirements for?
In a word? No.
There are a few caveats here (check the Status => Stone menu, for an example); but mostly you're just going to have to learn and remember.
Of course; very few jobs require special materials: most of the time the name of the job will tell you exactly what you are going to end up using. (Make stone cabinet, for instance, uses stone available to the workshop; and Craft iron helmet will use iron and fuel.)