This is a problem that affects both physical disc copies and digital copies of the game.
I think that this is a secuROM (outdated security DRM checker) problem. I think that Microsoft disabled the part of Windows that lets secuROM to run and check to see if you own the game. Since it cannot run, I think that the game does not run, because it never gets a confirmed yes or no from the software.
I had this problem also, and I found a video on how to fix it about a year ago, but YouTube has since decided to take it down. Another video that I found helpful:
This video details one way of counter-acting the problem. Another way is just deleting some KB update from your computer that Microsoft has distributed, but that would leave your computer open to viruses that exploit the old DRM checker.
You have two options for fixing/solving this problem (both of these methods solve the problem for the physical disc copies of the game and the virtual downloaded versions from Origin or elsewhere online):
You open cmd (command prompt on windows) with administrative privileges, and type in "sc start secdrv" (exactly how you see it, and yes an extra space could mess it up) and press enter.
Try opening the game up now with administrative privileges. If it works, congratulations! If it doesn't try researching another solution to the problem of secuROM.
After you close the game you need to reopen cmd with administrative privileges and type "sc stop secdrv" to stop the process, so you are less likely to get a virus from leaving secuROM on.
You can open the registry editor and delete the Microsoft security patch (It will forever leave your PC vunerable to viruses, but at least you don't have to worry about starting and stopping the secuROM process.)
This website link details how to perform both options:
As far as I can tell, the actions needed to start, stop and delete the update work on safeDisk (another form of old DRM software) and secuROM.
Sorry if this was a little long, but I wanted to provide as much information and as many solutions as possible to this problem since it took me 1 full day of research for me to figure out why my disk copy wasn't starting after a Microsoft update.