In the way of gameplay, you can play the game without killing anyone (avoiding a lot of blood and gore). There's even an achievement / trophy for that: Clean Hands.
As for the inappropriate language or sexual content, I believe there is no way you can turn them off. I would say that the place that you mentioned that looks like a strip club (in the 'House of Pleasure' mission) is still conservative compared to modern standards (and other modern games). There's not much skin shown.
I found this method of increasing/decreasing the chances of severing limbs (for the PC version). (The post talks about increasing the chances, but modifying the percentage or values would, theoretically, decrease the chances.)
If you play it on PC, I found that you can increase the chances of limbs being severed upon death (to as much as 100%) by editing the "DishonoredWeapon" file in the following file location:
Make sure you copy/paste the changed contents of "DishonoredWeapon" to "DefaultWeapon" in your Dishonored install directory:
If you do not do this, the game will return the contents of "DishonoredWeapon" to that of "DefaultWeapon" when you launch the game, overwriting your progress. Backup the original files if you wish to return to standard operation later.
You are looking to change the "m_SeverLimbsUponDeathParams" lines for any weapon you desire.
Change the value for "m_fChanceOfTriggering" in this line to "1" to get 100% limb severing upon killing for the given weapon.
"m_fChanceOfDestroying" determines the chance of each severed limb from gibbing into nothingness as opposed to remaining on the ground.
Changing the value of "m_bExcludeChestBone" to "False" will allow the given weapon to SEVER THE CHEST. This is by far the goriest and most awesome thing about editing this file. Shooting a crossbow bolt at someone's chest will propel their torso, arms, and head (all attached) into a wall...leaving the legs to crumple.
You can even copy the "m_SeverLimbsUponDeathParams" lines to weapon subtitles that were never intended to sever limbs (like the wire trap thing) and change the value of "m_bSeverLimbsUponDeath" to "True". The razorwire trap will cut people to pieces.
Source: Comment at Reddit /r/gaming post, "All I want to do after beating Dishonored with low Chaos" by blake_n