My teleport pad will sometimes keep teleporting me back onto the ship instead of down to the planet. Is there a solution for this issue?
The answer, unfortunately, is that there might not be anything you can do. Starbound is in early beta, so right now, it is going to have lots of bugs and is rather likely to crash.
What you can do is go to Starbound's forums to submit a bug report. Hopefully, the devs will address whatever is causing your problem soon.