Can we create a kind of sonar / scanner to scan for deep resources ?
Nope, no such technology exists.
The best you can do is light the dirt to see about 6-8 blocks into it. Beyond that, you're better off just looking underground.
Actually, there is a way to do this. If you have the matter manipulator out, it highlights any blocks the cursor is over, even if it's out of mining range. This allows you to see any block on the screen simply by mousing over it.
I know this probably isn't what you're looking for but there is another way to find ores in the ground without having to create anything or using the matter manipulator to see, that is to use the command /fullbright having admin privilege.
(I don't recommend that, it would spoil the fun)
If you're into mods, there are alternatives to the Ore Detector.
The Illuminated Ores removes the need for a detector and instead makes all ores glow and thus revealing their positions.
Alternatively, the Ground-penetrating Radar Station works the same as an Ore detector, but shows a wider range and is stationary (without digging it up and placing it again of course).