World structure is not something that you can find out with 100% security without a tool. There is a mathematical function at work that uses the seed to calculate how the world will look like.
In order to find out what biome will be in a certain location with a 100% security, you will have to do the same calculation as the world generator in minecraft is doing. The issue there is, that you will not be able to say "give me the nearest jungle". You will have to generate the world around you and then look if there is a jungle. But either way, you will need to use an external tool to do this calculation, since it is quite complicated and since minecraft does not have any built-in tool that could help you there.
What you need in the end is something that is either using the seed and the generation engine of your current minecraft version and try to preview a certain area (like AMIDST) or a tool that looks at already generated maps such as a mapping tool.