Other than a jungle, where can you find cocoa beans? I'd think you could find them in dungeon chests etc, but from experience this doesn't seem to happen.
The only way to obtain cocoa beans in vanilla minecraft (Without spawning them in) is to:
Find them in dungeon chests (Including desert and jungle temples)
Harvest them from jungle trees
Trade for them with villagers (In older versions, cocoa beans are no longer included in the villager trade items)
You can find cocoa beans from any chest that spawns in the world. Villages before 1.6 will trade beans to you and you can find them on trees.
No, they only grow on jungle trees. :(