During the first years, a gatherer hut in a forest is an efficient, low-maintenance and reliable source of food. They also produce four different kinds of food (berries, onions, roots and mushrooms) which is great for food variety. Their drawback is that they require a large forest area, so supplying a large population primarily with gatherers will soon cause you to run out of space.
Hunters require forest areas like gatherers, but only generate about half as much food. You might still want to have a few hunters because they also produce leather which can be used to make clothing (the other sources of clothing material - sheep and cattle - might not be available yet). It is not required to man each hunters lodge with 3 people. A single hunter is usually enough to decimate the animals which spawn in its vicinity.
The most space-efficient food source are fishers. They only need a small building at a river or lake. Do not place them right next to each other, because this reduces their output. But you are free to use the space between them for other buildings. Fishers are also low-maintenance and reliable, but they unfortunately don't have a high yield per worker compared to other food sources.
Pastures with livestock require a large area and have a setup time of several years until the herd has grown large enough that it produces food. But they are maintenance-free (except for the annoying habit to develop infestations from time to time, requiring you to transfer the herd to a new pasture before they all die), only require a very small amount of workers and when they finally reach the maximum animal population they produce even a bit more food than farms. Pastures can also be used as an emergency food source. When you set the amount of animals per pasture to a lower amount than you currently have, all excess animals will be butchered as soon as possible. Unfortunately this throws you back quite a lot in building up a sustainable meat industry. For further reading I recommend the question "Which livestock is the most efficient food source?"
When it comes to supplying a large population, you won't get around using farms and orchards. But these are unfortunately the least reliable food source. A short summer can mean that you lose a large part of your harvest, which can lead to a famine, which is often the beginning of the end of your village. Also, farming requires a lot of workers when you want it to be low-maintenance. Technically you only need the workers in spring (for seeding) and autumn (for harvest). Farmers will automatically act as laborers during winter so they do at least something productive, but in the summer they will just poke around the fields which does absolutely nothing for crop growth.
You could, of course, assign your farmers to other jobs during summer and winter. But this is dangerous, because you risk forgetting to assign them back when it's time for field-work. That means there is an additional risk of losing a harvest because of your own negligence.
Orchards have the advantage over farms that they only need workers for harvest, not for seeding. Trees only need to be planted once and then live for several years. That's a job even a single worker can do. But orchards have a setup time of several years until the trees will start to carry fruit. Also, after a few years the first trees will die and need to be replaced by young saplings, which will reduce the food output of the orchard. Even when all trees are in the food-carrying age, the output of an orchard will be slightly less than that of a farm.
By the way: Changing type of fruit only affects the saplings being planted. Any existing trees won't get replaced. So with a bit of micro-management you can create mixed orchards with many different kinds of trees.
Bottom line: Do not put all of your eggs in one basket. A good village should make use of many different food sources. That not just improves food variety and thus overall health, it also balances risk, labor requirement and space requirement of the different food sources against each other.
But the most important thing to avoid starvation is to always have an emergency stockpile of food. Every citizen (adult, student and child) consumes about 100 units of food per year. Food does not perish, so there is no reason not to store a lot of it. Make sure that your food stockpile is at least
citizens * 100 units (stockpile for one year), so you have no starvation even when you completely screw up a years harvest. Should it ever get lower, even when just for a moment, build more food sources!