Xbox Live Home Gold lets you set one Xbox One as your home Xbox, so that anybody logged into it, whether or not they have Gold themselves, can have your Gold privileges. Is it possible to set my One as the home machine, log in two non-Gold users, then log in on another Xbox with my Gold account, so that all three of us get Gold privileges with only my account? What if the second (non-home) Xbox is a 360?
The Answer is no. Microsoft doesn't allow you to sign into a gold account on two Xbox at the same time to play games.
The Home Gold counts as you being logged in to that console. Note they can use netflix and you can use multiplayer. But even then i have to be signed for any gold stuff to work for my wife. She has her own account that has apps but signs in as me and then continues to sign in as her. When i play defiance i have to resign in to the ONe after i finish to play Titanfall.
Home xbox is more about you having access to your downloaded games and saves, not sharing your gold for others
According to Xbox Support, the scenario you describe should work. Any account logged in to your home Xbox One (whether you are logged in or not) will have access to anything that requires a Gold account, and as long as you have an active Gold subscription any Xbox One you log in to will allow you to use Gold features as well.
Xbox Live Gold sharing doesn't exist on the 360, so that should work the same as it always has - any account that has a Gold subscription will be able to use Gold features, and all other accounts won't.