I don't know if we can consider it " canon " , but there is definitly a more " logical " order to do them, in my opinion. Because as you said, and I quote:
on Feros Shepard having no idea about Sovereign's Indoctrination
even though ealier on Noveria Benezia had explained it.
It clearly shows that it would be more logical to do Feros before Noveria then.
So personally, I always do them in this order:
Therum ( Shepard starting by recruiting as many people as he/she can,
and since that person is Benezia's daughter, it makes sense that
Shepard would want to meet her as soon as possible ) , Feros ( Shepard
investigating on the Geth activities trying to understand what the
Geths are looking for, and discovers the Thorian and his mind-control
power ) , Noveria ( Shepard found out on Feros that Saren is
interested by the Thorian's mind control, so Shepard wants to know
more about Indoctrination, and ends up meeting Saren's " representant
" Benezia ) , Virmire ( Shepard FINALLY finds " the bad guy " Saren,
and discovers the truth about Sovereign ) , and then Ilos ( meets
Vigil, learns more about the Protheans and discovers the truth about
that Relay on the Citadel, leading Shepard to the end ) .
That seems like the more " logical " order to do the main missions.
But then again, I don't know if we can really call it " canon " , since the game lets you choose the order you want to do them, making it impossible to really have a " canon " version. Only a " more logical " one.
Can't really call it " canon " because it's up to the player's choices.