Unfortunately not. At best, you receive 100% from surviving resources landing on the launchpad at the Kerbal Space Centre. The percentage will decrease rapidly as you get further away you get, down to a minimum of 10% at the exact opposite of the planet.
As for strapping parachutes to SRB's:
To reduce the amount of calculations the game has to preform, all objects over 2.5km from the active vessel are placed "On Rails"(physics is no longer calculated, object continues on last predicted trajectory). All "On Rails" objects that are too deep into an atmosphere are deleted immediately.
It's also worth noting that only objects attached to a command pod or a probe body will be recovered, the cheapest probe body in the game is three times more expensive than an SRB and you don't get much back from an SRB, because most of it's cost is in fuel.
There are techniques that would allow you to over come these problems, but the extra effort and costs required to achieve them are more than you recover from it.