Is there an easy way to get the coordinates of a specific player using command blocks? I was trying to find a way to do this but I could not find any info about it.
This is impossible for now, unless using special plugins (when you are running a Bukkit server or something like that). You can only get your own coordinates by using
Sole_Wolf commented that you can use the Bukkit plugin MapCoOrds if you are running a server in the possible duplicate passage that I suggested.
You can also use a map to see other players, but other players can see you as well. Also, you can't get their exact coordinates.
If you are targeting a specific player in a command, simply type their name on the
<Player> tag or do
@p for nearest player,
@r for random player or
@a for all players.