The short answer is yes. Some followers, like Vilkas or Lydia are painfully bad at Sneaking. If you try sneaking with them along they will almost always be noticed. This will pull enemies as normal.
However, the game handles detection independently for you and your follower. With a high enough sneak level it is not uncommon for a follower to be noticed and attacked while the enemy remains blissfully unaware of the player that accompanied the clunky follower. Used cautiously, you can use your follower to draw enemies where you want while you position yourself to do what you want, or to get around to where you can stab them in the back.