No, using any console command on a VAC protected server will not cause a VAC ban.
not official, but a very verbose discussion about what causes bans and what does not.
Allowed Cheats that will never trigger a ban.
Using console cheats in a source VAC server with sv_cheats 1 turned on
allows all players in the server to use console cheats of any kind.
wording of this page implies that console commands do not matter and that VAC would not even be able to detect them.
When a player is connected to a VAC-secured server (denoted by a
security badge and the letter V in the server browser), the VAC system
checks if any foreign processes are hooked into the player's local
game binaries. If the VAC check finds a positive ID for any possible
cheating tool, the offending player's Steam account is then
permanently banned from all VAC-secured servers after a variable
amount of time. Message displayed to a VAC-banned client.
Valve Anti-Cheat will not detect content hacks such as invisible wall
textures or bright-colored player models. Server admins that wish to
block such activity will need to run a pure server.
wording on this link specifically mentions 3rd party cheats. Not built in ones to the game.
The VAC system reliably detects cheats using their cheat signatures.
Any third-party modification to a game designed to give one player an
advantage over another is classified as a cheat or hack and will
trigger a VAC ban. This includes modifications to a game's core
executable files and dynamic link libraries.
Further, from personal experience, I have joined VAC protected servers that have sv_cheats set to 1 and have never been VAC banned.