If your clan castle troops survive an attack they will return to your clan castle at full health. Do Golemites and Lava pups count as a Golem or Lava Hound surviving?
According to the Clash of Clans wiki:
If you have a Golem in your Clan Castle, and it splits into Golemites during a defense, it will become a Golem again after the defense if at least one Golemite survives the battle.
So Golemites will return as Golems if at least one survives.
I could not find any sources for lava pups, however I assume they would behave similarly.
I don't know if this was changed at the last update or not, but I just got attacked with a golem in CC. It was alive at the end of the raid in the form of golemites and NOPE. The golem will not be in your CC.
I'm not sure what can really pass as proof, but as soon as I saw it I took screenshots: