There are a few main types of enemy ships (corvette, frigate, fighter, etc.) and many different types of weapons (flak turrets, scatter turrets, various broadside weapons, etc). I'm assuming each class performs about the same between different factions.
It's pretty clear that some weapon types are ineffective against certain enemies (ex. Flak cannons barely scratch a frigate). I believe the descriptions of some weapons give hints to that effect, but certainly all do not.
So my question is: Which weapon types are most effective against each of the different enemy types? (not Mk I vs Mk II of the same weapon type, that is obvious)