I have never been to the farlands, as I did not care about Minecraft as it was wimpy in 2011. But I did some research in a mod.
The far lands are where land generation collapses. Your unique Minecraft world created my seed code, is considered infinite, but you won't really make it very far past 2 million - 3 million blocks. Your Minecraft world is about 30 million by 30 million blocks witch is 900000000 million (900 million) blocks. 600000000 (600 million) of those blocks is far lands. If you ever make a journey to the farlands, the last 400,000 blocks to the farlands you will lag, where it would make the game very very hard to play. If you ever get to the farlands, you won't be able to walk more than 10 or 20 blocks. You see it's dark in there and you will fall into a void after 20 blocks, and there is no light unless you add some or use a potion. Also if your game does not crash, you will lag to the point you fall into a void, and never die. You will just fall and fall. You may need a computer professional to fix your computer.
(Fun fact: Your world will probably start to melt, within 400,000 blocks of the farlands, unless you teleport or nether travel, so have fun trying.)
So in short, as nice as it would be to go to the far lands, you would need the 1.7.3 Java edition version, AND 10 or 12 human years of spare time.
To answer your original question, "Will the game crash due to the HUGE data values", Yes it will.
Also to the 2nd question, "what can happen if you keep flying through the farlands for a lot of time."?. Well, it won't work, unless your in laggy creative, or speculative mode. If you make it there, after 10 to 20 blocks in, you will just fall into an endless void, as the world generation can not exist because human computers are primitive. You can make it a little farther in creative but you will probably just lag, and your Minecraft world will disappear.