It says my steam account is 1-year-old today, but the badge for the years of service isn't showing up. Is it delayed a day or something?
Link to my profile: http://steamcommunity.com/id/Undelt
Read this post from the Steam Forums, very similar issue. It appears that it is directly related to the time of your first purchase/activation of a game.
It took the OP nearly an hour before it showed up. The other thing I'd say is make sure you are active on your account.