I know that sentient AI technologies are considered dangerous because they may lead to a revolution of sentient machines, but is this true of sentient combat computers? Will ships equipped with them defect in the event of an AI uprising or perform any other actions detrimental to my empire?
Included in the Synthetic Dawn DLC, The Ghost Signal during the Contingency crisis event will affect ships equipped with sentient AI combat computers.
The Ghost Signal has five levels of strength, corresponding with how many sterilization hubs that have yet to be destroyed. For every level of strength the Ghost Signal has, which starts at 5, ships will receive a 10% penalty to fire rate and tracking.
So no, it's not dangerous per se, but there are certainly still drawbacks that you will want to mitigate.