"Triggered" means your stimulated by someone else's behavior etc. and may likely be something that you can relate to. It originates from the term "trauma trigger", a psychological term used to describe a case when an event happens to bring a traumatic event come back into memory.
"Tilt" is actually a poker term for a state of mental or emotional confusion or frustration in which a player adopts a less than optimal strategy, usually resulting in the player becoming over-aggressive. It has since been utilized by the gaming community to relate to a scenario where you lose a lot of games in a row, therefore causing you to go on "tilt" and lose more.
(Fun fact: The most likely origin of the word "tilt" is as a reference to tilting a pinball machine. The frustration from seeing the ball follow a path towards the gap between the flippers can lead to the player physically tilting the machine in an attempt to guide the ball towards the flippers. However, in doing so, some games will flash the word "TILT" and freeze the flippers, causing the ball to be lost for certain. The metaphor here being over-aggression due to frustration leads to severely detrimental gameplay.)