There is no geographical checking. You can register an account from any physical location provided you can give the appropriate postal code/city/state province for the country. You do have to have a method of payment for country your account is from to make purchases.
Some people get around this by purchasing PSN cards. For example, if you are a US resident but want to play games purchased from the Japanese store, you can create a Japanese account and purchase Japanese PSN cards from someplace like playasia.com. Note that PSN cards can only be used with accounts from the country they were purchased for.
Games on PS4 are not region-locked, so you can purchase/play games for any country while physically in any country. Video is a different matter, and video is generally licensed based on physical location. You cannot watch Videos purchased from the US store outside the physical US for example, and cannot use PlayStation Vue outside the US.