If you have the seed that was used to generate your world, you can use mineatlas.com to get a map of your world, and optionally show locations where villages, temples, ocean monuments and similar are generated.
If it's a local game, you can just upload your
level.dat file (it's in the saved game directory), no need to look up the seed yourself.
If it's a game on a server, you might be able to get the seed using
/seed, however, most server owners disable that command to prevent players from cheating. With a local game, /seed works as well, even without cheat mode, so you can use this as well if you don't want to upload the
level.dat file or can't find it.
@CAD97 commented that there's another tool Amidst that does the same thing locally so you don't need an internet connection.