If I have my game data on one console with my account, is there a way to continue playing it on a different Xbox One and a different game disc?
I'm guessing you are asking if you can carry your save game from one Xbox One to another. Yes you can, but only is you use Xbox Live and have a Gold subscription to backup your save games to the cloud. Then you'll access the same profile on the 2nd Xbox, and you can download the save game.
Xbox Live Gold is a payed service.
You can't copy it to an USB flash drive.