To answer your main question, I've found an article that says certain models can support up to an 8TB hard drive.
PlayStation 4s with a model number below CUH-1200 can accommodate drives up to 4TB in capacity, while PS4s with a model number above CUH-1200 can handle up to 8TB.
However, you'd be hard pressed to find an 8TB hard drive that is 2.5 inches. You can use something called a Nyko Data Bank which will allow you to use 3.5 inch drives, but it's essentially an external hard drive closure, and will add to the size of your PS4 (not a big deal, unless your PS4 is in a small space).
From the page I found, I don't think a 10TB drive will be supported. Realistically, 8TB should be more than enough (it would be for me!). The article also noted that a 6TB hard drive would be more preferred from a cost perspective, but if cost isn't a factor then there are certainly some 8TB options available.