I want to buy a dusk shadow Xbox One controller, and I've been thinking about getting the Play and Charge kit for Xbox One, but I heard it doesn't transfer data (and it would be more expensive). Now I heard that I can use any micro USB cable, but I don't know what it actually transfers.
See this article for more information about the subject at hand, but to answer your question, the article states:
You can also charge your battery by connecting the controller and charge cable to any USB power source, and use other USB-certified cables. However, charging times may vary.
Since attaching it to a USB port on a PC qualifies as "any USB power source," it should still charge. The light on the charge kit cable will glow an amber color indicating that it is charging. It may take longer (or perhaps shorter) to charge the battery as well, depending on how much power can flow through the USB port.
As for whether the controller will work, I don't see any reason why it wouldn't. The article also says:
Your controller transmits all signals through the cable until it’s unplugged.