Be sure you use different folders for every version of the game. Default is to always use main directory
.minecraft, however that is really not good idea, because if you runned multiple versions, there may occur version conflicts in libraries, assets or even in options files. Then nonstandard things or crashes can happen.
This includes modded/nonmodded versions, different MC versions, Beta builds, etc. You should setup each profile as it uses different folder, so they never overlap with files. Yes, it may use then some more MB of HDD space, but it will be stable.
Edit Profile (or
New Profile), then tick
Game Directory and fill in some path to directory. Every profile should use its own! For example I use
.minecraft\ForgeProfiles\<nameofprofile>, because I mainly use modded versions of game even for vanilla play (minimaps, optifine etc), however the name choosing is on you, but check the folder that there is no data already!
Bonus: Add more RAM to Minecraft, from picture you can see I also checked the last line. I made a change only at the start of the line,
-Xmx3G , that means I let Minecraft use 3GB of RAM instead of 1GB. (Needs 64bit version of OS and Java!). This operation should stabilize the game, too, especially when you play with some mods installed.
Alternatively you can try to use alternative launcher, if bad things will still occur on launch. That one can be found on the website of Minecraft , the second EXE should always work properly (but needs Java installed).