Whenever you collect 4 Spirit Orbs, you can trade them in for either a heart container or stamina vessel. Is there a maximum number of either or can I trade every Spirit Orb in for a heart container and remain at 1 stamina vessel for the whole game? I ask, because I'd like to upgrade stamina, but I want to max my health first and don't want to accidentally run out of upgrade opportunities completely.
In addition to the below answer, there are now 4 additional spirit orbs (from the second DLC pack) that allow for one further upgrade to either your stamina wheels or your heart containers, bringing to the maximum to 31 heart containers and 3 1/5 stamina wheels.
From various posts like this one, it seems like the maximum number of hearts is 30 and the maximum stamina is 3 full wheels.
There are 120 shrines, the first four spirit orbs being used to obtain the paraglider
That leaves 116 shrines with spirit orbs capable of increasing life/stamina. 116/4 = 29, which means there are a total of 29 upgrades
Correction: these 4 Spirit orbs are not consumed, so they are still able to be used towards upgrades. Thus, 120/4 = 30 possible upgrades.
There are 30 max hearts, and you start with three, so it would take 27 upgrades to max your life
And this thread:
You can upgrade stamina 10 times, each time you upgrade it you get 20% of a wheel. So you can have a maximum of 3 wheels.
Therefore, you can, at most, have 30 hearts and only 2 & 2/5 stamina wheels or 3 full stamina wheels and 27 hearts, as there are 30 upgrades available plus the 4 heart containers given as rewards from the main dungeons.
At this time, it's not certain whether you can fully max out both of these in a single playthrough (the math makes it seem unlikely), but you are able to respec, as explained in this guide:
Make your way to Hateno Village and then head to the bottom of the hill on the other side of the entrance to the village. You should see a sad-looking statue here.
If you talk to this, it’ll start a sidequest that sees the statue steal either a Heart Container or Stamina Vessel from you, but interact with the statue again to reclaim it.
Talk to the statue after this and it’ll offer you a deal whereby you can sell one of your Heart Containers or Stamina Vessels for 100 Rupees. This isn’t as bad as it sounds, though, as if you speak to the statue once more, you’ll be given the option to purchase either a Heart Container or Stamina Vessel for 120 Rupees.
Therefore, you can essentially pay 20 Rupees each time and completely switch your health and stamina upgrades. You can use this statue as many times as you want as long as you have the 20 Rupees necessary.
You can have a total of 24 hearts on top of the 3 you start with. That's a total of 27. 4 of these come from the divine beasts, leaving you with 20 purchased hearts from the Goddess statues. 20 from the Goddess, 3 to start, 4 from the divine beasts = 27 The remaining orbs can be used to buy stamina rings and that nets three filled stamina circles. Maxing out my hearts and stamina was my first priority and made the game SO much simpler. I had the master sword (which requires at least 13 full hearts) before I killed the 2nd divine beast because I devoted the first 25 hours to shrine hunting. Ganon is a joke if you have maxed hearts and stamina. Good luck!!!