Can any non-player character of any race in Skyrim acquire a disease effect through an attack, trap, or other source? (The obvious case is a familiar, since wolves can give the player rockjoint.) If so, do they take the associated penalties?
This includes enemy NPCs, neutral NPCs, and friendly NPCs like followers. Circumstantial evidence like the lack of disease resistance on NPCs where it would be expected, like vampires, suggests the answer is no.