I decided to test this for myself, and placed some iron into my Starship. My Exosuit had no iron on it whatsoever. I attempted to craft a Carite Sheet, and it allowed me to do so. As expected, the iron that was within my starship was now gone.
It appears then that having supplies scattered across different inventories will still allow you to craft something in your exosuit, so long as you are close enough. If you are out of range of whichever craft has the items you need, you won't be able to craft it unless you get closer (the item will be grayed out in the crafting menu). As said in the comments, I believe this is how the game has always been, but it's been a while since I've played it, so I decided to try for myself to be sure.