Yes, it is possible without creating a server, you are able to do this by opening your world to-LAN. Then port forwarding you Computer's Local IP and the port created by opening to LAN. Then giving your Public IP to your friend. This may seem confusing, let me demonstrate.
If you are on Windows you can find your Computer's Local IP by opening Command Prompt (CMD) and typing "ipconfig" and then pressing enter.
If you are on Mac you can find you Computer's Local IP by opening System Preferences and selecting "network".
Make sure that your Minecraft World is opened to LAN
You can find out how to Port Forward here.
NOTE: When entering the port, the port will be the one that is in the chat in Minecraft.
You can find your public IP by googling, "Whats My IP"
Now all you have to do is give your friend the IP. NOTE: The format in which you enter the IP into Minecraft is "IP:PORT". An Example is "192.168.0.1:25565".