You keep running into snags with your converted save, don't you? The problem lies in the simple fact, that you conquered most of the world in CK2 and many mechanics in EU4 do not work, if there is already a massive superpower at game start and many nations are missing from the game.
This is the event starting the reformation.
You see the base MTTH is 2500 months, i.e 208 years. We can safely assume you have more than 10 cities, which cuts it down to ~120 years. So depending on reform desire it's somewhere between 4.5 years (if it is over 125%) and 90 years (if it is between 100 and 105%). There is also the factor of latin or iberian cultures having an x8 multiplier. But I don't know whether your greek/roman cultures counts as one of those. So, 15 years and no trigger is not a lot of time, unless your reform desire is over 120%.
The point is, in a normal game, there are many nations, where the reformation can fire, in your game, there was none before you gave up defender of the faith. Mongolia can't fire the event, as their capital is not in europe and you couldn't, because you were defender of the faith.
It will likely fire at some point in the next 100 years, at the latest, once you get reform desire beyond 125%. It is not bound to the age mechanic. But I cannot say for certain what happens with your ages. My guess is, the age of reformation will not appear. as you essentially jumped it. Age of reformation triggers 10 years after the reformation (which in a normal game will happen between 1490 and 1530), wheras Age of Absolutism is bound to the global trade insitution. I don't think the age mechanic will jump to a previous age, as the trigger to end the age of absolutism is the enlightenment instituion.