Do guardians that have been destroyed rise again after a blood moon? I've noticed that the ones in the shrines don't.
From the Wiki
Additionally, the Blood Moon allows Ganon to reconstruct destroyed Guardians (corrupted ones) as well, despite being artificial constructs, though his ability to reconstruct them may be due to the fact that they have been corrupted by him thus can be considered extensions of Ganon himself. Aside from Guardians, a Blood Moon also restores Malice pools connected Glowing Eyeballs, presumably due to Ganon's power reaching its peak.
So yes, Guardians do respawn, though this excerpt is slightly misleading - The "Corrupted Guardians" are the ones found in the overworld; Stalkers, Decayed, Skywatchers and Turrets, that are under Ganon's control. But, the Guardians found in the Shrines (primarily the "Test of Strength" shrines) also respawn during the Blood Moon, to provide ways to obtain Guardian weapons whenever (for example when required in the Weapon Connoisseur quest).