I want to get as many achievements as possible, but I don't want to cheat! How can I get more Golden Cookies without any cheat codes? Help! Also, how often do Golden Cookies appear? I never really time it.
The main way to increase the frequency of golden cookies is by getting achievements related to collecting them. Specifically after collecting 7, 27 and 77 of them. Each of the upgrades make cookies appear "twice as often" meaning the time between them is cut in half. There are other way to increase frequency of them by smaller increments listed in the wiki link.
There are many ways to increase the chance of Golden Cookies spawning.
Primary Golden Cookie Upgrades
As mentioned in the previous posts, there are three upgrades related to Golden Cookies. Out of the three, two of them relate to the spawn rate of Golden Cookies. The two upgrades are Lucky Day and Serendipity, which require 7 and 27 Golden Cookies clicked respectively. They both make Golden Cookies spawn twice as often. If you ascend, these upgrades will unlock again once you click on at least one Golden Cookie in a new run.
During Easter, there is a rare egg called Golden Goose Egg. Owning this egg slightly increases the chance at which Golden Cookies spawn.
There are a few ways the garden can help spawn more Golden Cookies.
The first set of ways relating to the garden are the plants. The plants Ordinary Clover, Golden Clover, Shimmerlily, Fool's Bolete, and Green Rot increase the frequencies of Golden Cookies, some better than others.
Also, when harvesting mature Green Rot, there is a slim chance you will unlock an upgrade named Green Yeast Digestives, which slightly increases the chance of Golden Cookies spawning as well.
In the Ascension tree, there are two upgrades you can purchase to increase the number of Golden Cookies you get. The first one is called Heavenly Luck and has a price of 77 Heavenly Chips and increases the rate by a small amount. The second one is called Distilled Essence of Redoubled Luck, and while does not increase the rate at which they spawn, it causes there to be a 1% chance whenever one does spawn to have two spawn instead. This upgrade costs 7,777,777 Heavenly Chips to unlock.
As well as those upgrades, all of the Holiday upgrades (besides the Christmas one) increases the rate at which Golden Cookies spawn during their respective seasons. That being said, Startrade, the upgrade for the Business Day Holiday, increases it by the most. Each of these upgrades cost 111,111 Heavenly Chips.
Krumblor is the cookie dragon, and one of his Auras increases the spawn rate of Golden Cookies. By sacrificing 100 Wizard Towers to him, he will unlock the Arcane Aura, which gives a boost to how often Golden Cookies spawn. As well as that, if you upgrade him to the max to unlock the second Aura Slot, you can equip the Reality Bending Aura there. This aura gives 1/10th of all other auras at the same time, which includes 1/10th of the power of the Arcane Aura.
In the Temple Minigame, the Pantheon, there is one Spirit that can increase the rate of which Golden Cookies spawn. Selebrak, Spirit of Festivities, boosts whatever Holiday you are in at the cost of increasing the cost to switch between Holidays. As long as a Holiday is active, he increases the rate at which Golden Cookies spawn. If that Holiday happens to be Business Day, the increase is slightly more. I would recommend slotting him in the Diamond slot and playing with Business day up.
Golden Sugar Lump
There is a very rare Sugar Lump called the Golden Sugar Lump. This has the lowest rate to spawn of any variant of Sugar Lump, always being under 0.15%. But, if you happen to get one, you receive a buff that lasts 24 hours that moderately increases the rate at which Golden Cookies spawn.